Sunday, May 24, 2020

Essay Brazils Development Without Long Term Damage to the...

Brazils Development Without Long Term Damage to the Amazon Introduction As part of this essay I will be discussing the issues involved with Brazil’s Amazon rainforest and how they as a country can use the rainforests resources for their development, without impairing the ability to use those resources in the future. In other words it is saying that Brazil should not cause long term damage to the rainforest when extracting resources. This is called sustainable development, and as it suggests, it means to sustain the environment whilst also continuing to develop their needs. However, there are several issues surrounding this, some people are for sustainable development and others disagree and†¦show more content†¦Staring with the arguments against development using the rainforest, these are mainly viewed by conservationists, environmentalists and researchers. They feel that deforestation will have major consequences on the planet in the future. The damage is most threatening to the ecosystem, which all have knock on effects. For example, once the trees are cut down it firstly causes many species of life to lose their habitats, without the covering canopy of trees it also exposes the soil. With the heavy rainfall on the soil it causes flooding and erosion. The actual climate is also disturbed because it does not allow the constant evaporation and transpiration, disrupting rainfall. It can all eventually lead to desertification. The lack of trees will also increase the levels of carbon dioxide in the air and accelerate global warming. This is what many people fear to lose, as well as the many range of plants that provide us with chocolate and also some of the most important medicines and cures. However, there are also many beneficial factors of development. Some people argue that why have the different plants and trees that give us fine furniture, chocolate and coffee if they are not going to be used in development to eventually be sold to us. The people of Brazil rely on this development to maintain what is their daily life. As Brazil is an LEDC it needs to ‘exploit’ theShow MoreRelatedDeforestation Of The Amazon : Commercial Cutting2024 Words   |  9 PagesNick Dugo Mr. Church and Mr. Haldeman World Studies 3/4 23 May 2016 Deforestation of the Amazon: Commercial Cutting 2.4 acres per second- two football fields of rainforest disappear every second (World History 1). Deforestation, or the clearing of trees and plants on a massive scale, has been happening since Portugal first colonized the region known as the Amazon Rainforest, which is in Brazil. 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(â€Å"The Economy Vs. Environment Debate,† n.d.) There seemingly appears to be conflict between the act of progressing in terms of development and conservation. Our world has been rapidly changing over the past decade. This is due to the fact that the Industrial Revolution took placeRead MoreImpact of Deforestation on the Earth Essay1375 Words   |  6 Pagesattributable factors include urbanization, logging, ranching, and farming and to some extent land speculation. Land speculation can be included as cleared land is more valuable than forested land. Deforestation, done in the name of progress, and the long-term, devastating effects of it, is killing our planet. To understand the effects of deforestation one must understand the reasoning behind the decision to clear forestlands. Only in recent history, have studies been conducted to measure the impact thatRead MoreEssay on Ending Destruction of the Rainforest1339 Words   |  6 Pages24 hours a day, there is a loss of approximately 115,000 acres a day. This is an exorbitant amount forest loss in one day meaning that at this pace hastened by the roadrunner ethics, that the forest will not have a place in the environment for very long. The fact is that now is the time to voice your opinion before and act it is too late. Reasons There are many reasons as to why a country would allow their environment to be desecrated. Most of this rests within a money factor, being that theRead MoreBric Analysis Essay11111 Words   |  45 Pagesimposing of the ‘‘BRICs countries’’— less populous than China and India, slower-growing in recent years than China, India, or Russia, and the only member of the group lacking nuclear weapons. We argue that Brazil’s material capabilities are more significant than commonly supposed. Moreover, Brazil’s democratic transition in the mid-1980s, along with that of its neighbors, has for the first time enabled Brazil to realize its promise of becoming a regional leader in South America. On the basis of itsRead More The Environmental Impact of Wetland Destruction and Deforestation2959 Words   |  12 Pagesdisappear each year due to tropical deforestation, expanding agriculture, and human settlement. (Hinrichsen, 1999) Human activities impact t he environment, including clearing agricultural land; air, land and water pollution; urban and suburban development; and the introduction of invasive or non-native wildlife species. If land and wildlife are poorly managed, humans risk fragmenting habitat, destroying essential wilderness, and altering food webs and species relationships. As the birth of theRead MoreGlobal Trade And Economic System2807 Words   |  12 Pagesorganization dedicated to wartime recovery to one focused on a variety of projects, including HIV/AIDS treatment, environmental protection, and other methods of to improve quality of life. However, its growth as an international organization has not been without controversy. There have been criticisms regarding its leadership and its practice of loan giving. While the public face of this institution says it is dedicated to improving the quality of life of the impoverished, its actions run counter and haveRead MoreForest Conservation4124 Words   |  17 PagesFOREST CONSERVATION Forests are one of the most important natural resources that have been gifted to mankind for their sustained existence on earth. Without question, they provide us with huge amounts of tangible and intangible benefits, without which indeed, all life, less to say human life, would fall under the risk of extinction. Hence, it is vital for us to realize this importance of forest cover, conserve them, and ultimately work towards a sustainable way to maintain our forests and meetRead MoreApple Business Strategy - Essay7214 Words   |  29 Pagesarray of products from computers to televisions to software. Apple is revered as a leader in innovative products that are both user friendly and ascetically pleasing. In the market of computers today, Mac and PC are more similar then anything in terms of hardware. The memory in a MacBook Pro is almost identical to a comparable PC laptop. So where is the line that draws users to PC or Mac? The obvious difference is the OS or Operating System. Most desktop PC’s run on Windows OS while Apple has its

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Genetic Engineering Science vs. Religion - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1415 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/09/16 Category Religion Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? What View Does Science Have on Genetic Engineering? For the first time in history, evolution has taken a backseat to the meddling of humankind with their own genetic makeup. There is an ongoing realization that humanity is capable of directly shaping its own and other species evolution. As we ease into the twenty-first century, we realize that genetic engineering is undoubtedly going to have a dramatic effect on our lives. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Genetic Engineering: Science vs. Religion" essay for you Create order It seems that with genetic engineering, science has moved from exploring the natural world and its mechanisms to redesigning it. Now, we must ask ourselves this, will that influence be for better, or for worse? However, even the responses of science differ in this topic. Scientists remain divided in their opinions. Some have warned against the hazards of genetic engineering, while others have dismissed these perils as inconsequential. Two opposing viewpoints, which is right? Lewis Wolpert, professor of biology as applied to medicine at University College London, says that, There are no ethical issues because you are not doing any harm to anyone. And indeed, the gist of his statement is staunchly supported by James Watson, a Nobel Prize winner and president of Cold Spring Habour Laboratory. If we can make better human beings by knowing how to add genes, why shouldnt we do it? The biggest ethical problem is not using our knowledge. They are both extremely critical of excuses that gene tic engineering is a bad idea. Are they absolutely right? Are the predictions of doomsday just insubstantial bits of fluff with no proof to support these claims? Are we truly so confident as to proceed with no holds barred? Both scientists seem not to have the slightest bit of anxiety regarding potential glitches. They have found a fascinating playground in genetic engineering, and appears that it is not only a way for them to earn their livelihood, but also gain fame and fortune. Is their attitude towards this serious issue too cavalier or biased? Are they too unclear about the likelihood of threats to civilization? In contrast, two other prominent scientists have displayed their displeasure about genetic engineering. They have made no secret of the rather strong feelings against genetic engineering. George Wald, Nobel Prize-winning biologist and Harvard professor, wrote: Recombinant DNA technology [genetic engineering] faces our society with problems unprecedented not only in the history of science, but of life on the Earth. It places in human hands the capacity to redesign living organisms, the products of some three billion years of evolution. It is all too big and is happening too fast. So this, the central problem, remains almost unconsidered. It presents probably the largest ethical problem that science has ever had to face. Our morality up to now has been to go ahead without restriction to learn all that we can about nature. Restructuring nature was not part of the bargain For going ahead in this direction may be not only unwise but dangerous. Potentially, it could breed new animal and plant diseases, new sources of cancer, novel epidemics. Erwin Chargoff, an eminent geneticist who is sometimes called the father of modern microbiology too echoed Walds concerns. He commented: The principle question to be answered is whether we have the right to put an additional fearful load on generations not yet born. Our time is cursed with the necessity for feeble men, masquerading as experts, to make enormously far-reaching decisions. Is there anything more far-reaching than the creation of forms of life? You can stop splitting the atom; you can stop visiting the moon; you can stop using aerosols; you may even decide not to kill entire populations by the use of a few bombs. But you cannot recall a new form of life. An irreversible attack on the biosphere is something so unheard-of, so unthinkable to previous generations, that I could only wish that mine had not been guilty of it. Have we the right to counteract, irreversibly, the evolutionary wisdom of millions of years, in order to satisfy the ambition and curiosity of a few scientists? This world is given to us on loan. We come and we go; and after a time we leave earth and air and water to others who come after us. My generation, or perhaps the one preceding mine, has been the first to engage, under the leadership of the exact sciences, in a destructive colonial warfare against nature. The future will curse us for it. What is the Stand of the Catholic Church? For some Catholics, their stand on genetic engineering is steadfast, but rigid. For them, God alone is the master of human life and of its integrity, and in this belief, their only viable course of though is to be wary of the potential of genetic engineering for fundamentally altering Gods sacred creation. They seem to leave no room for the possibility that there might be a whole new viewpoint to this. In his 1983 address to members of the World Medical Association, Pope John Paul II, as the representative of the Catholic Church, shed some light on the topic from a different perspective. He did not refute the blatantly true statement that God is the creator of heaven and earth, of all that is seen and unseen, nor did he deny that medicine is an eminent, essential form of service to mankind. However, he hastened to add, the extraordinary and rapid advance of medical science entails frequent rethinking of its deontology. Pope John Paul II touched on three major points: the respect for life, the unity of the human being and the rights of the human being. These key factors contribute to the concept of the fundamental rights of man and the dignity of humankind. Also, is there the realization that while evolution is inevitable, genetic manipulation poses a serious question to every individuals moral conscience. In his words, A strictly therapeutic intervention will, in principle, be considered desirable, provided it is directed to the true promotion of the personal well-being of man and does not infringe on his integrity or worsen his conditions of life. Such an intervention, indeed, would fall within the logic of the Christian moral tradition. But here the question returns. Indeed, it is of great interest to know if an intervention on genetic inheritance that goes beyond the limits of the therapeutic in the strict sense should be regarded likewise as morally acceptable. In particular, this kind of intervention must not infringe on the origin of human life. It must, consequently, respect the fundamental dignity of men and the common biological nature which is at the base of liberty, avoiding manipulations that tend to modify genetic inheritance and to create groups of different men at the risk of causing new cases of marginalization in society. Moreover, the fundamental attitudes that inspire the interventions of which we are speaking should not flow from a racist and materialist mentality aimed at a human well-being that is, in reality, reductionist. The dignity of man transcends his biological condition. Genetic manipulation becomes arbitrary and unjust when it reduces life to an object; when it forgets that it is dealing with a human subject, capable of intelligence and freedom, worthy of respect whatever may be their limitations. Or when it treats this person in terms of criteria not founded on the integral reality of the human person, at the risk of infringing upon his dignity Scientific and technical progress, whatever it be, must then maintain the greatest respect for the moral values that constitute a safeguard for the dignity of the human person. And because, in the order of medical values, life is the supreme and the most radical good of man, there must be a fundamental principle: first oppose everything harmful, then seek out and pursue the good. To tell the truth, the expression genetic manipulation remains ambiguous and should constitute an object of true moral discernment. It covers, on the one hand, adventuresome endeavors aimed at promoting I know not what kind of superman and, on the other hand, desirable and salutary interventions aimed at the correction of anomalies such as certain hereditary illnesses. Not to mention, of course, the beneficent applications in the domains of animal and vegetable biology that favor food production. For these last cases, some are beginning to speak, of genetic surgery, so as to show more clearly that medicine intervenes not in order to modify nature but to favor its development in its own life, that of the creation, as intended by God.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Textile-and-Clothing-Report India Free Essays

string(45) " consumer groups with high purchasing power\." The Textile Industry and Related Sector in India Source: New Cloth Market The Textile Industry and Related Sector in India Source: New Cloth Market This market research study on Textiles and related sectors in India has been commissioned by Italian Trade Commission (Trade Promotion Section of the Consulate General of Italy), Mumbai, for which Ace Global Private Limited, a consultancy company based in New Delhi, has been appointed. The main objectives of the market research are to carry out a detailed market analysis o~ the industry, in order to identify potential opportunities for Italian entrepreneurs interested in the Indian market. The scope of the market research covers the following key segments of the industry: Textiles Apparel Clothing; Undergarments; Home Textiles, and Accessories. We will write a custom essay sample on Textile-and-Clothing-Report India or any similar topic only for you Order Now The findings of the research are presented in the following sections. Market Characteristics The Textile Industry in India is one of the largest and most important industrial segments of the Indian economy accounting for over one fifth of the country’s industrial production. It provides employment to around 15 million people who have helped produce one of the largest varieties of yarn, fabrics, textiles, clothing and garments, home furnishings and other textile products in the world. Textiles industry, including related subsectors, is worth about Euros 38 billion of which domestic segment constitutes 65% while 35% comes from exports. The textiles segment accounts for 59% of the industry, with apparel and other made ups constituting the balance. This industry also accounts for nearly 21 % of total employment in the country. Besides the textiles, apparels clothing, the industry covers a wide range of home furnishings (bed linen, curtains and upholstery, floor coverings, kitchen linen, bath linen, etc. and Accessories (including apparel accessories, like stoles, scarves, etc. , hard accessories like bags, wallets, fashion jewellery, time wear and eyewear etc. ). Market Size The total market size for the sub-sectors covered in this study is estimated at Euro 21. 7 billion in the year 200809 with textile clothing and garments having a major share of 93%. Home textiles and furnishings, and textile usage in accessories was insignificant with a collective share of less than 0. 5% of the total market. Textiles Apparel and Clothing India’s domestic market for apparel clothing is currently worth Euro 20,219 million in 2008-09. It has registered a steady compounded annual growth rate (CAGA) of 13. 6% in the past 5 years. Volume wise, apparel market has grown from 4. 8 billion units in 2004†² to 5. 9 billion units in 2008-09 at a CAGA of 5. 3%. Apparel and Clothing is the second largest retail category in India. India’s domestic market for apparels is currently worth over Euro 20 billion in 2008-09. It has registered a steady compounded annual growth ~ate (CAGA) of 13. 6% in the past 5 years. Volume wise, apparel market has grown from 4. 8 billion units in 200405 to 5. 9 billion units in 2008-09 at a CAGA of 5. 3%. Undergarments The 70’s witnessed the entry of undergarments in India when Peter Pan from Dawn Mills entered the market with lingerie styles of the West. The undergarment market further proliferated and flourished in India significantly when international majors forayed in to Indian market in a big way since the onset of the 90’s. India’s domestic market for undergarments is currently worth about Euro 1. 5 billion in 2008-09. It has grown at a CAGA of about 15% in the past three years. Volume wise, apparel · market has grown from 914 million units in 2006-07 to 1. 05 billion units in 2008-09 at a CAGA of 7%. The total urban market for the home textiles in India in 2005-06 was estimated to be Euro 1. 45 billion. With a modest growth rate of about 14%, the market in 2008-09 is about Euros 2. 16 billion and is expected to cross Euros 3. 12 billion by 2011-12. The 2004-05 Volume (million units) Menswear Women’s wpar Unisex apparel Kids’ wear Uniforms Total 1,328 1,368 – 466 1,222 ~ 423 4,807 India’s Apparel Clothing Market 2006 ·07 Value, Volume (Euro (million Million) units) 4,450 3,856 1,014 1,836 991 12,147 1,443 1,523 519 1,323 , 498 5,306 Value (Euro Million) 5,605 5,106 1,461 2,333 1,461 15,966 2008-09 (estimates) Volume (million units) 1,600 1,676 579 1,468 581 5,905 Value (Euro Million) 6,938 6,414 1,816 2,975 2,077 20,219 market for home textiles is dominated by bed and bath linen, which have more han two third of the market share in value terms. Bed linen alone has a market of about Euros 1. 19 billion according to the estimates. Apart from the home textile products given in the table below, the other articles included in the total market size are textile made-ups like wall hangings and other decorative home furnishing articles. Accessories Usage of textiles and fabrics in the Accessories sector is valued at approx. Euros 0. 28 -0. 30 billion in 200809, bf which bags alone account for 61 % and apparel accessories and other fashion accessories account for 39%. The most common fabrics used in accessories are cotton, denim, silk, wool and raxene. Given the wide variety of products, with production largely concentrated in the unorganized sector, no official estimates for consumption of fabrics in accessories sector are available. Therefore for the purpose of this study, the market size has been estimate based on discussions with key players and industry bodies during the primary research, as presented below. Demand Drivers As stated in the preceding section, the market for textiles and related products has been consistently growing annually by 12% – 15% for various sub-sectors. The key factors driving this demand are: Demand Side factors With over 1. 1 billion people, India is the second most populous country in the world. In terms of the demographic â€Å"window of opportunity†, India is home to 17% of the world’s population. It is also one of the youngest countries in the world, with over 65% of the population below 35% years of age. The young generation of professionals, both men and women, form important consumer groups with high purchasing power. You read "Textile-and-Clothing-Report India" in category "Papers" This buying group is more demanding in their choice of products, looking for quality that satisfy comfort, fitting, styling needs etc. This has resulted in a qualitative shift of consumers from low / economy range to premium and super premium range of products. Growing prosperity of middle class: Indian corporate salaries have grown at 14% per annum, which is considered to be fastest globally. A large number of households are getting added every year to the consuming class with growing income levels, resulting in increasing affluence of the upper middle and igh income strata. According to various studies, there were more than 300 million middle class people in India in 2007 with substantial disposable incomes. This number is expected to touch 600 million by 2010. There will a sustained and increasing demand for various consumer products by this segment of population. The increase in urbanization and nuclear family structure, a growing number of educated and employed women, media prol iferation and growing consumerism, have all contributed to the growth of consumerism and organized retailing. The increasing working female-population has not only increased the income of households, but also changed the outlook of women towards their choice of clothing, home furnishings and its interiors. There is a trend of going with the seasonal tastes. Market Structure and Segmentation The market segmentation for various sub-sectors is on following basis: Textile Apparels-and Clothing: †¢ †¢ †¢ Segmentation by User category: Men’s wear, Women’s wear, Unisex apparel, Kids’ wear Segmentation by Use: Formal, Casual, Traditional, Active sportswear, Uniforms Segmentation by Price: Super premium, Premium, Medium, Economy and Low end Undergarments: †¢ †¢ Segmentation by types of Suppliers: Informal/Unorganized sector, Organized sector – Segmentatfon by Price: Super premium, Premium, Medium, Economy and Low end Home Textile Furnishings †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Segmentation by types of Suppliers: Informal/Unorganized sector (70% share), Organized sector (30% share); Branded and Unbranded Segmentation by Use: Bed linens, Curtains Upholstery, Bath linen. Kitchen linen etc. Segmentation By Price: Super premium, Premium, Medium, Economy and Low end Accessories: Segmentation by Use: Apparel accessories (scarves, stoles, shawls etc. ), Hard accessories (bags, belts etc. ), Packaging for jewellery, time, wear, eye wear etc. Segmentation by Price: Super premium, Premium, Medium, Economy and Low end Changing face of consumer: In spite of the economic meltdown in recent times, there has been a continuous and sustained shift in consumer demand pattern from basic necessities to spending on lifestyle products and ervices continues, largely due to : †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Higher Income Younger age profile Increasing literacy levels Higher adaptability to technology Increasing urbanization Changing role of women and children in the decision making process Increased demand for better shopping experience Impulsive purchase behavior among youngsters Changing fashion trends and increased consciousness Catch up wi th International fashion styles Sustained growth of retail culture in the country According to Central Statistical Organization, and Technopak, the retail market in India was about Euro 210 billion, and will cross Euro 440 billion in 2015, with organized retail growing at nearly 20% per year. The emergence of mall culture and rapid development of malls would act as a catalyst in this retail growth story. Due to the increase in the income levels of people and the push from the supply side of realty boom in this decade has created a housing boom in India. About 2. 5 million new homes are to be constructed to meet the demand of middle class and upper strata of income groups. Housing and Hospitality sectors are the major sectors, with huge demand for soft furnishings. As per estimates, the total shortfall of quality hotel rooms in India in all luxury, premium, economy and budget hotels is about 150,000. More than 40,000 hotel rooms are expected to come in top 10 metro cities by 2012. Supply Side Factors 1) Leading textile manufacturers are integrating their businesses vertically and have strong competencies in spinning, weaving and finishing. 2) There has been a significant improvement in the infrastructure related to textile machinery, transport and power which are further augmenting production. Government of India has allocated substantial funds · for infrastructure development through schemes like TUFS, and SITP, worker skill development trainings etc. 3) Lateral consolidation of players through organic and inorganic growth domestically and internationally. Indian companies have acquired the global brands abroad in order to consolidate their global positioning and have established wholly owned foreign subsidiaries abroad 4) End of quota regime acting as a stimulus to further export growth. Assessment of Demand and Market Potential in India The overall assessment of demand and market potential in various sub sectors, projected on the basis of past growth trends and industry expectations, is summarized in the table below. The total market is expected to increase from Euros 21. 7 billion in 200809 to Euro 29. billion by 2011-12, with overall compounded annual growth of 7. 89%. There are no authentic statistics available- on the production and the total market size of the home textile products and accessories, as no official data is compiled due to the unorganized and highly dispersed nature of sectors. The above estimates for home textile furnishings have been computed taking the overall average annual growth rates of domestic urban market (considered relevant for the foreign brands) as 15% for bath linen, 10% for kitchen linen, 12% for curtains, 15% for upholstery and 10% for other products. It should be noted that, above estimations is only for urban India, which is. Price Segmentation The price segmentation of the market is broadly in three categories: The low end market: Lower and economy (marginally improved product segment in relation to the lower category), solely volume driven, products are mostly unbranded and dominated by large number of regional and local manufacturers, and sold through small neighbourhood stores, The low and economy segment is growing in terms of volume and value and the industry is becoming more organized. The mid-range market: This segment features medium range of products. Though primarily volume driven, this category caters to diverse sections of Indian consumers across all regions, Its quality is by and large acceptable to all sections. The mid-market segment is characterized by the presence of regional and national players. The market is continuously expanding and becoming more and more competitive in respect of quality and price. The high end market: Exclusivity in product features such as high quality . raw materials, embellishments, design developments and above all branding of products for years make the products very special. ‘ Elitist categories of consumers pay for the products on demand. Mainly comprises of large Indian players and the foreign companies/international brands operating in the premium and super-premium product categories. Super-premium products are considered luxury products and marketed by top national and international giants. Illustrative prices for products in various price segments are provided in different Tables. Regional Characteristics of the Market The consumer behavior of a particular region which is economically not so developed is different as compared to developed ones. The consumers in the less developed region are understandably, more priceconscious. Always on the lookout for quality products, their guiding principle is ‘value for money’. A lower per capita income, in eastern region for example, compared to western and northern India leads to a lower per capita purchasing power. Additionally, Delhi being centrally located and Mumbai, being the financial capital have certain advantages. The consumers who live in these cities are more exposed to latest product collections and are more familiar with design, quality and latest trendy fashion, as well as the luxury of greater choice. The relatively undeveloped regions offer several in-built advantages as well. Fashion contenders setting out to do businesses in these regions find to their advantage that the region has not been exploited commercially and is prone to competition. The market, therefore, offers much but it needs to be cultivated in an organized manner. Local ready availability of products also influences a consumer. The decision to stick to a particular available product/brand seems to govern the purchase decision than the rarely available choicest product. Logistics, convenience and easy availability are important considerations for a local consumer. Regional considerations, such as climatic conditions etc. , playa major role in so far as the purchase decision of apparels is concerned. For instance, a consumer in Northern region would spend more on woolen products than his counterpart in the west or south where the winter is much milder. In India, different states are known for their specific style of clothing, home furnishings etc. For example J is the leading state for embroidered bed covers whereas Rajasthan (Jaipur) is famous for block printed, tie dye bed covers, with mirror work, appliques, and bright colors. The market also depends upon the production and raw materials and government policies and programmes in specific states. Although there is an increasing influence to western and contemporary designs, Indian industry is still greatly influenced by the traditional regional motifs, with the materials of satin mix, tapestry for drapes and even cotton mixes with synthetics for the traditional look. Fabrics with bold prints and pastels are making a comeback. Polka dots and stripes, inspired by the retro, have made a comeback into the collections the world over. The sales of textile roducts increase significantly during the festival seasons in India, by up to 40 – 50 percent. Regional and national festivals, (e. g. ‘Diwali’ is one of the most important festivals in India during October/ November) are the time to buy new clothes, renovate home furnishings. Consumer Behavior and Preferences The Indian consumers are noted as among the most discerning’ consumers in th e world with a high degree of value orientation. Even, luxury brands have to design a unique pricing strategy in order to get a foothold in the Indian market. Indian consumers also have a high degree of family orientation. Brands with identities that support family values tend to be popular and are accepted easily in the Indian market. Indian consumers are also associated with values of nurturing, care and affection. These values are far more dominant than values of ambition and achievement. Products, which communicate feelings and emotions gel with the Indian consumers. Different Segments of Indian Consumers Socialites: These are the upper class who shops in specialty stores and own exclusive accessories, and have a luxurious lifestyle. The Rich: India has over 1 million rich households (income greater than Euro 8,000 per annum). These people are upwardly mobile. Some of them in this category are Double Income No Kids (DINK) households. They spend more on leisure and entertainment-activities than on future looking investments. The Conservatives: These are the middle class population of India, who are very price conscious and demand more value for money. In addition to the above, the following segments are becoming increasingly important in purchase of consumer products: Working Women: Working women with disposable incomes are the key factors for the growth of women’s accessories. An Indian woman is no longer just a homemaker. She is willing to buy designer products and is ready to pay high premiums for the same. Youth: With the increasing exposure to International fashion styles, the Indian youth is gaining more awareness and becoming style conscious. This segment believes in impulsive purchasing. There are certain common considerations for consumers regardless of locations. The consumers by and large are becoming increasingly more and more conscious of value of money. Price sensitivity is a common concern. Purchase decisions of consumers anywhere are more guided a combination of demographic and psychometric factors, such as, disposable income, age-distribution, pattern of income distribution, quality of upbringing, aptitude, tastes and preferences and so on. These days, the purchasing behaviors in India are greatly affected by the western tastes. The role of media, magazines, televisions have been increasing in making people aware about the new trends. There is a craze to own the best brands and designs among the people. The premium luxury brands are available only in the tier1 and tier2 cities hence making them a good market. Purchase Pattern of Textile Products Major findings of textile products based on All India consumer survey conducted by Textile Committee, Government of India, 2006-07 are presented as under: †¢ †¢ In India man-made fabric among various textile materials’ sells the most. Sales of cotton come next in the order, while wool and silk constitute negligible percentage of total sales. Central, northern and western regions are the major consumers of man-made fabrics. Maximum consumption of cotton is reported from the eastern region. Consumption of cotton, in other regions is reportedly much less. This is an interesting revelation since India is ranked third as a cotton producing country in the world. †¢ †¢ †¢ Brand preferences Brand building is a stupendous task which involves high investment on production infrastructure, technology upgradation and enormous merchandizing. This has inspired lesser known medium sized players who are trying to establish their products in the market through Creation of brands. There is a strong indication that Indian market will have large a number of brands in near future in view of market expansion and increasing competition. Preference for particular apparel brands depends on individual tastes and preferences. However majority of Indian consumers look for certain common parameters like design, quality and above all merchandizing. Innovation in product design and fabric selection, are essential elements that add to value perception for a product. Sales discounts also tend to influence the purchase decisions of consumers provided the minimum parameters/ features are not compromised with. The Undergarments segment is characterized by well known national brands operating in the medium priced segment. Premium and super-premium product categories comprise branded products distinguished for exclusive product features operating at the high end of the market. Efficient logistics and supply chain management and media exposure have largely contributed to the popularity of these brands. Branding is a relatively new phenomenon in the Indian home textile furnishings market. In Accessories, the consumer demand . for premium product is on the rise. Style conscious customers with money look for variety. Consumer inclination for mix-n-match to build their wardrobe is acting as a catalyst in the growth of accessories market. Factors Influencing Brand Preference †¢ Brand preference pattern of consumers depends upon a host of factors such as : Combination of price, quality fitting as major parameters of purchase decision for sensitive but smart consumers Track record of Indian manufacturer/reputation of foreign joint venture partner. †¢ Reputation of international companies The consumers place major emphasis on product quality. Price is another important consideration attracting customers to a particular shop/brand/ product. Pre and post sales services, parking facilities and ambience of the store or mall are the other major factors that attract local customers. Sales discounts also tend to influence the purchase decisions of consumers provided the minimum parameters/ features are not compromised with. In the selection of products, the consumers do not give automatic ‘precedence to local brands over national or foreign brands. Value for money has become the over-riding consideration. Fabric, texture and color followed by proper fits and sizing weigh more importance to the local consumers rather than just easy availability of local brands on account of proximity. Degree of Elasticity of Demand of Local Consumers Considering that price elasticity depends to a large extent on the degree of competition among the manufacturers, the Lower and Economy segments of the market are usually price inelastic. These segments being highly competitive do not allow the manufacturers much leverage on price. Higher up along the value chain, the affordability or paying capacity of the consumer is higher. The mid-price segment becomes increasingly quality oriented and more diversified. Despite competitive pressure, the price in this segment keeps on rising and the demand becomes price elastic. In case of premium and super-premium product segments, where entire focus is on quality, style and brand value, the consumer is insensitive to change in price. As per the findings of retailer survey, even an increase of less than 5% in the price has an effect on low end / economy category products, while mid-end category is usually able to absorb a 5-10% price increase without a major adverse impact on the sales of a brand. Originally published in New Cloth Market: February 2010 How to cite Textile-and-Clothing-Report India, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Business Communication An Essential Element For Effectiveness

Question: Discuss about the Case Study for Business Communication for An Essential Element For Effectiveness? Answer: Terms Definitions 1) Agenda In simple words, it defines the professional way of to-do-list, it contains the workings that are to be done and mainly described in the agenda paper. The agenda paper comprises the works in the list that are quite important and have to be discussed in the meeting so that it can be implemented in future. 2) Appendix After the conclusion part, an additional part of the written document that carries necessary relevantinformation regarding the topic. 3) Communicational Barrier An internal impact or the external one during an ineffective communication which can be perceived in case of reception or else transmission of a message. 4) Business communication The communication process is much goal-oriented and very informative towards the business. Transmission of such information happens in the internal environment of the company or sometimes it is transmitted to the consumers present in the external environment so that promotion of the products and services of the company can be effectively done. 5) Channel Transmission channels or media through which information is transmitted, in modern world, email, face-to-face, broadcast media, electronic, mobile and written. 6) Communication Information sharing with the help of mutual understanding with the integration of new ideas and information. 7) Curriculum vitae (C.V) In British terms, C.V. which is the same as rsum in American English. In this document, the entire career and life of an applicant mostly based on his/her qualification, education; background, work experience etc are briefly described. 8) Decoding Interpreting of the message after hearing from the encoder as per ones own mentality as well as experience(Bojic et al.,2012). 9) Diagonal communication Interactive communication among different departments of the same company. 10) Encoding After the information comes from the source, the encoders shape the information or idea into a definite message. 11) Formal communication The communication which is absolutely business-related and some specific standards, rules as well as laws are there to evaluate it. 12) Grapevine communication Informal style of communication that occurs due to face-to-face communication in a word-of-mouth style and it includes the spread of a piece of information in an unofficial way. 13) Hierarchy The chain of command in which specific levels of ranking are there given to the authority of different people. 14) Horizontal communication Communication between two people present at the same hierarchical level in a company. 15) Informal communication Unofficial communication or sharing of information between two different members of the same organization. 16) Medium Different modes of communication, such as- email, mobile, reports, social media, letters etc. 17) Memorandum In the internal environment, among the colleagues memorandum is utilized which is just a form of short notice 18) Minutes Transaction of a well documented business record which occurs in a meeting. 19) Mushroom communication An ineffective style of managerial philosophy, in which the subordinates remain in dark without getting informed about anything. 20) Noise A disruptive intrusion which has negative impact on the communication. 21) Nonverbal communication Transmission of message without any words which primarily points towards written communication channels, in the forms of- logos of the company, signs as well as symbols and in case of oral viewpoint, the gestures, body language, attitude, appearance etc. 22) Oral communication Information sharing via speaking to each other. 23) Principles of communication For effective communication, the laws, rules and regulations along with the standards and activities, that the members have to follow. 24) Reports A document written in formal language specially designed to show a leader who wants some specific information regarding a issue to make decision 25) Vertical communication Information sharing from upper levels to lower levels or the lower levels to upper levels in the chain of command of an organizational structure. 26) Written communication Transmission of message or sharing of information with the help of text or written documents. Introduction Considering different views, opinions, suggestion and ideas is a decisive part of communication which is quite a practical proficiency. For the communication, diverse media, channels and sources of other organizations are taken into consideration. It is because; communication is an aspect that is very necessary to work on behavioural aspects and relations. In the world of business, communication is the aspect which is the reason behind many issues of disagreement(Chatterjee Subramanian, 2013). By improving the communication, effective management of the company can be possible and for this all the conflicts among the aspects should be resolved right away. Objective The communication related factors get more complicated once an organization gets more big or approaching towards business expansion. So, here the different factors, attributes, points and technological features associated with communication have to be analysed which is an objective of this study(Coombs, 2014). Then, the problems associated with the topic and its impact on effective communication has to be assessed properly. Afterwards, with the help of robust strategies regarding effective management techniques and comprehensive interpersonal skilfulness, the mitigation techniques will be found to solve the problems. Procedure The report is based on a formal meeting and after analysing all the communicational factors and the problematic issues related to the formal communication, the entire report has been formulated(Eksteen Basson,2015). Here, the problematic issues related to an effective style of communication have been illustrated along with the possible remedies. Findings Multiple media as well as channels are needed for effective communication and these channels and media have also serious impacts that can either positively or negative affect the communication process(Chatterjee Subramanian, 2013). So, careful selection of the media or the channels is quite necessary or else the intended message will not get conveyed properly or expressed incompletely that can arise many misunderstandings among the subordinates as well as leaders and subordinates of the organization(Efremov et al.,2013). So, the tables illustrated underneath demonstrate all the attributes of communication during a meeting. Communication Type Applications Pros Cons Media or channels Formal communication Conveying the rules, regulations, objectives, goals and policies of the company Sharing of reports, propositions, ideas, recommendations, proposals, complaints etc. Conveying information about an project which is in progress to the members present in the same department and the other departments Communication in the external environment while sharing information with the customers or giving information to the stakeholders about products or services or while promoting them Strict rules, regulations and activities Effective due to the factor of seriousness The communication is maintained in the record It conveys the common followed rules, regulations and policies within the organization Reliability assurance of the information Strict rules fasten the process of free and open communication Followed by formal procedures so a time-taking process Late feedback gain The formalities of formal communication are sometimes overwhelming which make people unconfident as well as uncertain Paper brief Business letters Disciplinarians Appraisals Emails Text messages Memoranda Minutes and agendas Questionnaires Feedbacks Reports Informal Communication Interpret: Interpretation of information from Formal Communication by top level management to clear any doubts Present Grievance: Discloser of employees personal needs and emotions with employer Makes good Working Environment: Informal system allows conversations and discussions relating to the issues between the management and employment. Increases Efficiency: issues can be discussed that give rise to better results. Flexibility: Provides more flexibility as it is free from all the formalities. Rapid Communication: Transmission of informal communication is fast and spreads rapidly Distort Meaning:Subject of the information can be distorted. Spread Rumours: Wrong Transformation of original information createsrumours which spread rapidly. Misunderstanding: It develops when employees do not obey formal authorisation creating various opportunities that lead to misunderstanding. v Casual Emails v Waving v Responding through body actions Mode of Communication Advantages Disadvantages Applications Oral Communication Cost Saving: There is no involvement of pen and paper. Time Saving: Delivering the message orally conserves time. Oral communication is used in immediate situations Effective and Powerful: The variation in body languages and tones message is delivered in various meaning which prove to be effective. At the same time it is powerful as it reflects the tone, gesture and posture of the speaker. Immediate Feedback: feedbacks are received immediately regardless of the receivers understanding. Appropriate and Suitable: there is an opportunity of immediate clarifications of the message conveyed. Motivation: Oral communication is an easier way for motivation of the sub-ordinates which enhances the productivity. Informal Communication: Oral communication doesnt have to be formal necessarily as required in written communication. No Legal Validity: Oral communications have no records hence has no legal validity. Time Consuming: Delay in decision making occurs as irrelevant conversational jumps. Lack of Privacy: Confidentiality of information gets disclosed in any oral communication. Lack of Records: Due to difficulty in preserving the messages for future references it is impossible to keep records of the communication. Limited Use: The scope of usage of oral message is limited always. Distortion of words /phrases: Goals of the company is affected due to distortions of words in the process of oral communication. Inefficiency and Inaccuracy: At times there are chances that the messages reach inaccurately to the targeted receiver. v Business Meetings v Presentations v Face to Face Communication v Telephonic conversation v Discussions v Lectures v Seminars v Counselling v Speeches v Databases Written Communication Easy Presentations: Complex information can be presented and handed over easily. Easily Preserved: Documents of written communication are easy and safe to preserve the message. Permanent Records: Documents can be kept as a record. Used as Future Reference: The preserved documents of written messages can be used as a reference in future when required. Accuracy and Legality: Written messages can be kept and used as a legal document therefore must be carefully drafted. Delegation of Authority: Absence of legal document lead to impossible delegation of power. No chance of Misinterpretation:Information can ever be misinterpreted over written communication. Information Accuracy: Inclusion of irrelevant information does not exist in written communication. Expensive: Written communications are always expensive due to the utilization of resources such as pen, paper, ink, computer even employees. Useless for Illiterate: Message delivered in this mode is useless when the receiver of such message is illiterate. Delay in feedback: Feedbacks and responses are delayed in case of written communication. Delay in Decision Making: Due delay in responses and feedback decision making is also delayed. Time Consuming: Written communication consumes more time between two or more parties. Delay in Approval: Time is consumed in such process and hence there is delay in approval of orders Lack of flexibility: After a message is written into the document it is difficult to change the message as a whole. v News Releases v E-Mails v Letters v Applications v Websites v Telegrams v Postcards v Faxes v Advertisements v Brochures v Contracts Electronic Communication Low Cost: Electronic communication saves money as well as time. Fast and effective: Communication is carried out in seconds and at real time as it supports quick and real time transmission of messages. Long term storage Facility: Electronic communication allows storage of data and information communicated for a longer period of time and maintaining its privacy and security. Broader Coverage: Due to advancement in technology communication across the globe is carried out in seconds. Easy to Carry out Global Operations: Due the speed and accuracy, managers are able to carry out global operations in an effective way. Instantaneous feedback: Feedback obtained from such communication process is instantaneous in nature(Eksteen Basson,2015). Easy Access: With accurate credentials one can access and communicate using Electronic communication system through numerous platforms. Work from Home: At certain cases communication allows users to work from home or at anyplace. Legal Status: in few cases information can be hoax or fake hence legal status of messages are compromised. Undelivered Data: Due to technical errors data gets undelivered and retrieving is tedious. Volume of Data: When the volume of information increases, it is tough for the organisation to absorb the data in due time. Loss Of Privacy: Data can be exposed to various users as it travels through electric signals and routers which increase the chances of data encryption leading to loss of privacy. Security Concerns: Copy of electronic data can be made and its content can be altered without being traced back. Dependency: Technology is dynamic as a result of which it is impossible for poor countries to adapt or to afford such new technologies hence have to depend on advanced countries to provide them the technology. v Emails v Text Messages v Video Calls v Conference calls v Software v Internal Information System Hard Copy Can be accessed at any time Electric Devices are not involved Existence of solid legal entity Can be highlighted and summarized. Has clarity and better understanding Not Eco Friendly Can be destroyed easily Difficult to store v CVs v Business letters v Disciplinary v Briefing Documents v Reports Communicational Barriers During the process of communication, there is a fair chance that there might be a substantial difference between the actual intention of the message and the meaning of the massage after the recipient gets it(Johnston et al.,2015). So, some of the parts related to the communication dont reach to the recipient because of certain barriers that are the causes of the distortion. By taking proper measures against these barriers will result into successful and effective style of communication in an organization. Communication Barriers due to the receiver Impact on communication In-depth analysis of the impact Communication level Improvement Time very late in the evening ortoo soon in the morning not enough time provided for the feedback The alertness level gets affected by reaching too early or too late as an individual will be too much tired or feeling sleepy Improper feedback by the receiver as the message is not clearly understood The meeting time should be decided as per the assent of everybody For late arranged meeting, hard copies with the key points and briefs should be provided to the attendees Suitable time period should be given to the receivers by the senders to give feedback so that any sort of misinterpretation or confusion can be avoided. Memory Information overloaded Individualism Selective consideration Pressure Strict Deadline Personal conditions Forgetting the vital information. Utilization ofperfect communication medium as well as channels. Hard copy with all the necessaryinformation should be given Physical environment Places with too loudness or noise Windows showing outside Food smell or peculiar odour High temperature, too cold Noisy environment creates distraction and the audience finds it difficult to understand what a person is trying to say that causes information gap The busy streets, exterior views, traffic noise etc can distract the mind of the receiver which decreases the level of concentration. Sometimes when meetings are organized in hotels or restaurants, the delicious smell of food causes distraction in the mind Higher or lower degree of temperature causes uneasiness by which it is hard for the receiver to focus Careful selection of the meeting venues The physical environment factors that can distract the minds of the receivers should be thoroughly checked before the commencement of a meeting and then appropriate measures should be taken to eradicate those for an effective communication. Nonverbal communication ORAL COMMUNICATION: These aretediousconversation with monotony, robotic speech, greater level of repetitiveness, body language etc. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION:long paragraphs, complex sentences; information overloading, improper style ofpresentation, draft, outline or arrangement. Due to these factor of oral communication a person lose interest and the essential information get missed Sometimes the reader also lose interest due to lengthy paragraphs, complex sentences and information overloading which makes it hard for thedecoder to comprehend, so again the imperative points get missed. More focus on the tone while speaking Allow the audience to ask questions and share opinions The most significant points can be summed up and formed conclusion or else a hardcopy in which summary of the discussion is written. Small paragraphs Every sentence in each paragraph about the context of the report. Simple and short sentences for easier understanding Some common barriers to communications are: Emotional barriers Physical barriers Lack of attention, interest or irrelevance to the receiver. Difference in perception and viewpoint. Physical disabilities such as speech difficulties and hearing problems. Differences in language and difficulties in understanding unfamiliar accents Cultural differences Use of over-complicated terms. A skilled communicator should always be aware of such barriers by checking continually as well as understanding these barriers to reduce their impact and by providing appropriate feedback(Honda et al., 2014). categories of communication barriers: Attitudinal barriers: These barriers are developed due to perceptions that prevent an individual from communicating effectively. These can result from personality conflicts, improper and inadequate management, resisting to change or lack of motivation. Effective receivers of messages must always make attempts to overcome the barriers formed by them to enable effective communication. Physical Barrier: Communication is generally carried out over short distance due to the presence and availability of communicational channels and involvement of technology is less. It is true to state that technological advancement serves in reduction of impacts due to the physical barriers(Hua, Nor Jaradat, 2012). Adequate understanding in terms of advantages and disadvantages of each and every communication channel is required to overcome the physical barriers associated with each channel of communication. Systematic Barriers: Systematic Barriers may reside in the structures and organisations where there inadequate and inefficient information systems and in various channels of communication. Systematic barriers mostly occur when there is absence of set of rules and roles of the team. In such circumstances, an individual may not be aware of their role in the process of communication. Psychological barriers: It is developed due to the psychological state of both the communicators. These barriers influences the nature in which the message is sent, received and perceived. Each and every person has unique and distinguished mind and communication does not work the same way as it would work on anybody else(Hunt, Atki Krishnan,2012). Lack of attention, poor retention, distrust and defensiveness, opinions, premature evaluations, closed mind and filtering are the various elements associated with psychological barriers. language barriers: These are the most basic and general barrier which causes misunderstanding as well as misinterpretation among the people. If the speaker as well as the receiver is not using a common language for communication there is no point of having such conversation(McCroskey, 2012). The words are not understandable by another and hence make the communication ineffective and the messaged is prevented from being conveyed. The dialect and accent differ from people belonging to different regions of the world even though the language is same. This leads to confusion between words and creates a barrier. References Bojic, I., Jezic, G., Katusic, D., Desic, S., Kusek, M. and Huljenic, D., 2012, September. Communication in machine-to-machine environments.InProceedings of the Fifth Balkan Conference in Informatics(pp. 283-286). ACM. Chatterjee, R.B. and Subramanian, K. eds., 2013.Excellence in business communication. Pearson. Coombs, W.T., 2014.Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Sage Publications. Eksteen, J. and Basson, M.J., 2015. Discovering the value of personality types in communication training for pharmacy students.African Journal of Health Professions Education,7(1), pp.43-46. Efremov, A.N., Stanganello, E., Welle, A., Scholpp, S. and Levkin, P.A., 2013.Micropatternedsuperhydrophobic structures for the simultaneous culture of multiple cell types and the study of cellcell communication.Biomaterials,34(7), pp.1757-1763. Johnston, M.J., King, D., Arora, S., Behar, N., Athanasiou, T., Sevdalis, N. and Darzi, A., 2015. Smartphones let surgeons know WhatsApp: an analysis of communication in emergency surgical teams.The American Journal of Surgery,209(1), pp.45-51. Honda, K., Hu, R., Neykova, R., Chen, T.C., Demangeon, R., Denilou, P.M. and Yoshida, N., 2014.Structuring communication with session types.InConcurrent Objects and Beyond(pp. 105-127). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Hua, T.K., Nor, N.F.M. and Jaradat, M.N., 2012. Communication strategies among EFL students: An examination of frequency of use and types of strategies used.GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies,12(3), pp.831-848. Hunt, D., Atkin, D. and Krishnan, A., 2012. The influence of computer-mediated communication apprehension on motives for Facebook use.Journal of Broadcasting Electronic Media,56(2), pp.187-202. McCroskey, J.C., 2012. 5 0 Oral Communication Apprehension: A Reconceptualization.Communication yearbook,6(6), p.136. Preda, A., 2012. Tags, transaction types and communication in online anonymous markets.Socio-Economic Review, p.mws011. Ulmer, R.R., Sellnow, T.L. and Seeger, M.W., 2014.Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Sage Publications.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Woodstock - The Cultural Effects Essays - , Term Papers

Woodstock - The Cultural Effects by Katie Bohr The Woodstock Music and Art and Festival was held August 15 - 17, 1969 on a farm near Woodstock, New York. The farm was owned by Max Yasgur. It was a rock music festival and the starting event of the era known as the Counterculture. Attracted by the presence of the most famous rock music bands and performers of the time, a huge crowd of almost 500,000 fans camped in a meadow and for three days lived in a heavy atmosphere of amplified music drugs and togetherness. The event received nationwide publicity, and many people felt that the new way of life had proved itself. But the illusion of success was hurt four months later at a free outdoor rock concert in California, featuring the Rolling Stones. It was spoiled by violence and ended with four deaths, one of them a murder. The Counterculture The counterculture was a social revolt among middle-class young people. Opposition to the Vietnam War and to a society that could pursue such a war, was at it's core. It had both political and cultural points of view: people who participated in the cultural revolt were called hippies; the political movement was known as the New Left. The revolt had several starting points. Between 1950 and 1964 the college population had more than doubled, reaching to about 5 million. Rock music helped popularize the freer alternate life-styles of young people. The civil rights and peace movements had made the failures of the existing system public. More liberal child - rearing practices had produced a generation that was not unfamiliar to freedom. A youth revolt had occurred in the 1920's. That revolt had concerned itself principally with matters of cultural style and personal behavior. It's symbols were flappers, gin, and jazz (as the counterculture's were long hair, drugs, and rock music). The Hippies The hippies dropped the traditional family in favor of other arrangements based on love. In practice, a person lived however long they wished with whomever they wished, in couples or in groups known as communes. Sexual relations in these groups might occur whenever mutual attraction was strong enough. Hippies chose to live in the present, to "go with the flow," and to "hang loose," over being "uptight". The partly religious nature of the psychedelic experience led many young people to forms of mysticism. Oriental philosophies, like yoga, Zen, Tibetan Buddhism, and the Chinese "I Ching" (Book of Changes), were studied, and their more easily accessible points of view were understood. Others followed Western occult pursuits, such as astrology, tarot, palmistry, and witchcraft. After LSD was banned in 1966, Timothy Leary founded the League for Spiritual Discovery, which recommended legalizing marijuana and LSD as religious sacraments. The Drugs Drugs played a major part in the cultural effects of the Woodstock festival. Hallucinogens like LSD, Psilocybin, Marijuana, hashish, and mescaline worked as social catalysts. These psychedelic drugs completely altered perception, strongly strengthening the belief that society's rules and institutions were optional. Hippies were often arrested for illegal drug activities. Suicides caused by LSD, connected with an epidemic of heroin and other "hard" drugs, destroyed the hope that psychedelic drugs might release human consciousness. The New Left The political aspect of the counterculture was lead by the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). This campus group inspired many students to political action. Among it's leaders, Tom Hayden, Rennie Davis, Abbie Hoffman, and Jerry Rubin gained nationwide fame. (These 4 people were also the head of the Woodstock Festival.) Alliances were forged with the "Black Panthers" and other radical minority organizations. The mocking style of the Yippies (Youth International Party) attracted many to the New Left. Both movements shared the goals of personal and societal liberation and had a common enemy : the decline of Western society. The New Left gained national visibility through protest demonstrations in support of the civil rights movement and against the Vietnam War. In 1968 there were violent clashes between police and demonstrators in Chicago at the Democratic National Convention. A radical party, the Weathermen, developed in the SDS. Favoring the use of violence and terror, they went underground in 1969 and began bombings. Decline of the Counterculture While the counterculture

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Why Thesis And Dissertation Is Not The Same And How Do They Differ - Paperell.com

Why Thesis And Dissertation Is Not The Same And How Do They Differ Why Thesis And Dissertation Is Not The Same And How Do They Differ? Already at the starting point of applying to an educational institution, many students think about their further education. If you are planning to finish the master’s or doctoral program, you will have to face some new terms like thesis and dissertation. Let’s try to understand the meaning of these academic papers. Many graduate-level programs usually culminate with a final thesis or dissertation. The aim of the final project is to represent student’s knowledge in the certain field of study. Now we will identify the differences between these meanings.The Main Features Of The Thesis WritingWhen you prepare such project, you need to conduct your own original research. It includes the hypothesis that has to be quite new and, moreover, this sentence should inform about the research you have conducted. Generally, in the US, such assignment is a final project for a master’s degree. It is often a specific research on a particular subject that should demonstrate t he student’s knowledge they acquired during the program. What are its main distinctive features? A master’s degree paper is quite similar to a research paper that students usually complete in college. While completing this task, you need to use the research of others, but you also need to analyze these discoveries on your own. It should demonstrate the level of both your critical and analytical thinking. Such assignment also defines the subject you are working on, using other research. It is easier than a PhD degree project but may also cause some problems, so you can use thesis help. The length of master’s degree project is usually over 100 pages and it includes less external links than a PhD final project. While coping with this task, students should emphasize their own ideas and conclusions.The Main Features Of The Dissertation WritingIt is a final project for a doctorate degree or PhD. When you are working on a dissertation writing, you should contribute som ething undiscovered to your field of study. In this type of work, the research of others is used only to help in your own study to make an absolutely new hypothesis. The length of a dissertation is usually over 400 pages. Dissertation is in some way harder as it requires deeper knowledge and analytic skills, and also assumes that its author has an in-depth knowledge of the recent discoveries made in his area of study. Moreover, you must ascertain new conclusions about the information you have read. On a dissertation writing services, you can learn more about it. Preparing such work, you need to synthesize collected information and use it to present your point of view. You can share your own thoughts in such work.What Are The Differences Between A Thesis And A Dissertation Writing?The technical difference between these two works is, at first, the length and the way you use the information for your research. A dissertation is lengthier and needs more time to be completed. A thesis is short and, thus, it takes less time to work on. Preparing a thesis, you should analyze some information you have already gathered whereas a dissertation is always based on your own research. A thesis also helps a student to get a scholarship. And a second work is a part of a process that you make to obtain the degree. As for the form of these papers, the first one is more like an academic research work, while a dissertation is like an academic book. There is also some structure difference between these two paper types. In a thesis, students use a hypothesis which is usually based on the research work of the others. And, at the same time, in a PhD paper, an author of it should have much knowledge of the new discoveries. Another important feature of a thesis is that you focus on your primary argument to confirm your point to your readers. In another type of project, the main focus is on the background work of a researcher. Furthermore, in a thesis, you need work with the information f rom different sources, preparing it includes the analysis of the other works. While in dissertation you add your own new findings and thoughts to the other sources and it requires argumentation that is based on a student’s individual study.General ConclusionHere we studied the most important differences between these two types of papers. One more thing you should know is that the definitions of the terms we’ve discussed in this article can differ between the countries. For example, in some countries, a thesis is done to get the doctorate degree whereas a dissertation helps to acquire a master’s degree. Many scholars say that these two assignments are the same, in general. Today the meaning of these two terms continues to be debatable.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Surfing Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Surfing Culture - Essay Example Educational systems have changed; students are given the chance to learn different communities and their cultures, inter-country school programs have changed the perception of culture exclusion. Many multinational industries help in exposing certain cultures and people to the world through their commercials enabling people learn and practice what they come across as a way of appreciating different cultures. Surf culture has been in existence since nineteenth century but became more popular in the twentieth century. Surf over several years ago was associated with the quasi religious practices which highlighted on the significance of valuing natural world and the spiritual way of being. It is said that surf culture originated from Hawaii (Taylor 925). This sport was dismissed by the missionaries as it was associated with laziness of the Hawaiians who could not do any other job but to practice their life style which led to a drop in the number of people surfing. Most of these individual s who value surfing are found living along the coast. It was until the late 20th century when female beings in the community fully ventured into the activity (McGloin 79). Surfing is a sporting activity which has influenced the lives of several people in the United States. Surfing in not only a culture exclusive to one community but is appreciated globally in running marketing promotions, sporting, tourism and for scenic and aesthetic attractions (Taylor 928). Outsider perspective Surfing has been associated with economic development in United States of America; its contribution to the economy through tourism, commercial industry and as a sporting activities. Surfing as a sporting activity in United States of America has been upheld and upgraded in that it is being held annually. People have a chance to expose their talent which they had not been able to through other activities. It is a very relaxing activity which any body can take part in as long as the individual has the passion and interest for it. It does not have to be the Hawaiians. In the process of organizing the sport, tickets are sold, many business individuals can sell more of their products to the participants and the spectators resulting into an improved business returns. McGloin states that the sport had not gained popularity among the female but the perception has changed over time where ladies have engaged themselves (68). The competition draws competitors from different parts of the country, people with different cultures and interests. Employment opportunities have been realized from surf in various parts of United States because clubs and associations were formed and managers were on demand. Local and international tourism has been promoted by surfing both as a culture and as a sport. Many people who live along the coastal areas especially the beaches spend most of their leisure time in the sport. It is a source of joy to most of them (Wagner, Nelsen & Walker 2). International tourisms mos tly visit California which was one of the towns where surfing was established in U.S. The amount of revenue tourists pay to the government of U.S is huge. Tourists enjoy watching the activity that pay a lot of money just to have more opportunity to observe the surfers. The beautiful scenery and the artistic features associated with surf are great. Visitors